Geometry Practice Questions

Basic Geometry Practice



Note: Figure not drawn to scale
1. Calculate the length of side x.

a. 6.46
b. 8.48
c. 3.6
d. 6.4


Note: figure not drawn to scale
2. What is the length of each side of the indicated square
above? Assume the 3 shapes around the center triangle
are square.

a. 10
b. 15
c. 20
d. 5

3. Reflect the parallelogram ABCD with the given mirror
line m.


4. In a class, there are 8 students who take only dancing lessons. 5 students take both dancing and singing lessons. The number of students taking singing lessons is 1 less than 2 times the number of students taking dancing lessons only. If 4 students take neither of these courses,
how many students are in the class?

a. 19
b. 25
c. 27
d. 42

5. The interior angles of a triangle are given as 2x + 5, 6x
and 3x – 23. Find the supplementary of the largest angle.

a. 640
b. 720
c. 1000
d. 1080


6. In the right triangle above, |AB| = 2|BC| and |AC| =
15 cm. Find the length of |AB|.

a. 5 cm
b. 10 cm
c. 5√5 cm
d. 6√5 cm



Note: figure not drawn to scale
7. What is the perimeter of the equilateral ΔABC above?

a. 18 cm
b. 12 cm
c. 27 cm
d. 15 cm


Note: figure not drawn to scale
8. What is the perimeter of the above shape, assuming
the bottom portion is square?

a. 22.85 cm
b. 20 π cm
c. 15 π cm
d. 25 π cm

9. What year was Euclidian geometry disproven, and by

a. Thales – BC 500s
b. Pythagor BC 500s
c. Pierre De Fermat 1600s
d. Nikolai Lobachevsky 1830s

10. Which postulate below disproves Euclidean

a. Through any two points, there is exactly one line.
b. If equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal.
c. Parallel postulate
d. Things which coincide with one another are equal to
one another (Reflexive property).

Answer Key 

1. B
In the question, we have a right triangle formed inside the circle. We are asked to find the length of the hypotenuse of this triangle. We can find the other two sides of the triangle by using circle properties:

The diameter of the circle is equal to 12 cm. The legs of the
right triangle are the radii of the circle; so they are 6 cm

Using the Pythagorean Theorem:
(Hypotenuse)2 = (Adjacent Side)2 + (Opposite Side)2
x2 = r2 + r2
x2 = 62 + 62
x2 = 72
x = √72
x = 8.48

2. B
We see that there are three squares forming a right triangle in the middle. Two of the squares have the areas 81 m2 and 144 m2. If we denote their sides a and b respectively:

a2 = 81 and b2 = 144. The length, which is asked, is the hypotenuse; a and b are the opposite and adjacent sides of the right angle. By using the Pythagorean Theorem, we can find the value of the asked side:
Pythagorean Theorem
(Hypotenuse)2 = (Opposite Side)2 + (Adjacent Side)2
h2 = a2 + b2
a2 = 81 and b2 = 144 are given. So,
h2 = 81 + 144
h2 = 225
h = 15 m

We reflect points A, B, C and D against the mirror line m at
right angle and we connect the new points A’, B’,C’ and D’.


4. C
The class can be shown by set E. Let us say, set D represents dancing lessons, and set S represents singing lessons. 8 students take only dancing lessons: s(DS) = 8
5 students take both dancing and singing lessons: s(D∩S) = 5

The number of students taking singing lessons:
s(S) = 2 * 8 – 1 = 15
s(S) = s(SD) + s(D∩S) and also s(D) = s(DS) + s(D∩S)
4 students take neither of these courses: s(E) – s(D ∪ S) = 4
s(D ∪ S) can be found by s(DS) + s(S) or s(SD) + s(D)
We are asked to find s(E):
s(E) = 4 + s(DS) + s(S) = 4 + 8 + 15 = 27

5. B
The interior angles of a triangle sum up to 1800:
(2x + 5) + (6x) + (3x – 23) = 180
82 NYSTCE® Mathematics Skill Practice!
11x – 18 = 180
11x = 198
x = 180
The largest angle is 6x = 6 * 18 = 1080
The supplementary of an angle is the angle which plus the
angle gives 1800. Then, the supplementary of 1080 is:
180 – 108 = 720

6. D
In the right triangle above, AB and BC are the legs and AC is the hypotenuse. For side lengths, Pythagorean Theorem is applied:
|AB|2 + |BC|2 = |AC|2
Let us say that |BC| = x. Then, |AB| = 2x:
(2x)2 + x2 = 152
5x2 = 225
x2 = 45
x = √45 = 3√5 cm
|AB| = 2x → |AB| = 6√5 cm

7. C
The perimeter of an equilateral triangle with 9 cm. sides will be
= 9 + 9 + 9 = 27 cm.

8. A
The question is to find the perimeter of a shape made by merging a square and a semi circle. Perimeter = 3 sides of the square + ½ circumference of the circle.
= (3 x 5) + ½(5 π)
= 15 + 2.5 π
Perimeter = 22.85 cm

9. D
Euclidian geometry was disproven by Nikolai Lobachevsky in 1830s.

10. C
Euclidian geometry supports parallel geometry. On the contrary, Non-Euclidian geometry is the study of geometry with curved spaces that is elliptic and hyperbolic geometry. In elliptic geometry; the inner angles of a triangle do not sum up to 1800; the sum is equal to 1800 plus the area of
the triangle. In hyperbolic geometry; the sum is equal to 1800 minus the area of the triangle. non-Euclidian geometry inspires from the shape of the world: If two meridians are selected; both intersect with the equator by 900. There is also a vertex angle in the pole. So, the inner angles sum up to 90 + 90 + vertex pole which is higher than 1800.  Another example; a person walks 10 m south, 10 m west and then 10 m north. He sees that he is where he started moving. Normally, we would say that he would be 10 m east from the starting point. Think that he is on the North Pole.
If he goes 10 m down, 10 m west and then 10 m north, he is
again on the pole.


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Basic Algebra Practice

Practice solving equations with 1 variable

1. A number is increased by 2 and then multiplied by 3. The result is 24. What is this number?

A) 4
B) 6
C) 8
D) 10

2. My father’s age divided by 5 is equal to my brother’s age divided by 3. My brother is 3 years older than me. My father’s age is 3 less than 2 times my age. How old is my father?

A) 34
B) 45
C) 56
D) 61

3. (x – 2) / 4 – (3x + 5) / 7 = -3, x = ?

A) 6
B) 7
C) 10
D) 13

4. 1 / (1 + 1 / (1 – 1/x)) = 4, x = ?

A) -3/4
B) 3/7
C) 4/7
D) 3/4

5. Jane is three times Peter’s age. When Peter is at Jane’s age, Jane will be 8 less than 2 times Peter’s age. Find the sum of Jane and Peter’s age at present.

A) 18
B) 21
C) 25
D) 32


Answer Key

1. B
Let us call this number by x:

This number is increased by 2: x + 2

Then, it is multiplied by 3: 3(x + 2)

The result is 24: 3(x + 2) = 24 … Solving this linear equation, we obtain the value of the number:

x + 2 = 24 / 3
x + 2 = 8
x = 8 – 2
x = 6

2. B
My age: x
My brother is 3 years older than me: x + 3
My father is 3 less than 2 times my age: 2x – 3
My father’s age divided by 5 is equal to my brother’s age divided by 3: (2x – 3) / 5 = (x + 3) / 3

By cross multiplication:

5(x + 3) = 3(2x – 3)
5x + 15 = 6x – 9
x = 24

My father’s age: 2.24 – 3= 48 – 3 = 45

3. C
There are two fractions containing x and the denominators are different. First, let us find a common denominator to simplify the expression. The least common multiplier of 4 and 7 is 28. Then,

7(x – 2) / 28 – 4(3x + 5) / 28 = – 3.28 / 28 … Since both sides are written on the denominator 28 now, we can eliminate them:

7(x – 2) – 4(3x + 5) = -84
7x – 14 – 12x – 20 = -84
-5x = -84 + 14 + 20
-5x = -50
x = 50/5
x = 10


4. B
We can follow outside to inside method to solve this type of problems. x is in the inner part of this fraction; then, we need to narrow the circle to reach x:

1 / (1 + 1 / (1 – 1/x)) = 4

This means that (1 + 1 / (1 – 1/x)) is equal to 1/4. Then,

1 + 1 / (1 – 1/x) = 1/4
1 / (1 – 1/x) = 1/4 – 1
1 / (1 – 1/x) = – 3/4

This means that 1 – 1/x = – 4/3. Then,

1 – 1/x = – 4/3
1 + 4/3 = 1/x
1/x = 7/3
So, x = 3/7.

5. D
Let us say that Peter is “a” years old today. Then, Jane is “3a”. When Peter is “3a”, 3a – a = 2a years will have passed and so, Jane will be 3a + 2a = 5a. Then, we are given that Jane will be 8 less than 2 times Peter’s age. So;

5a = 2.3a – 8
5a = 6a – 8
a = 8.

We are asked to find the sum of Jane and Peter’s age at present.
Today, Peter is a = 8 years old and Jane is 3a = 24 years old.
Their sum is 8 + 24 = 32.

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US History Practice Questions

US-HistoryUS History Practice Questions

1. Which one of these was not part of the Intolerable Acts?

a. The Stamp Act
b. The Townshed Acts
c. The Tea Act
d. The Foreign Trade Act

2. The British American colonists revolted from Great Britain because

a. most colonists wanted to be free from British rule
b. most colonists wanted to be represented in Parliament
c. most colonists did not want to be taxed
d.All of the Above

3. Why did the British Parliament impose the first of the Intolerable Acts?

a. To raise revenue for British Parliamentary salaries
b. To pay for the British military in the American Colonies
c. To make trade with non-British countries more expensive
d. To fund the British military’s ongoing war in India

4. What was the last plea to Great Britain to avert the American Revolutionary War?

a. The Olive Branch Petition
b. The Dove Accords
c. Jefferson’s Plea
d. Adam’s Plea

5. Why did the First Continental Congress meet?

a. Respond to the Intolerable Acts
b. Establish a military
c. Establish a federal government
d. Address issues of states rights

6. Why did the Second Continental Congress meet?

a. Establish a federal government
b. Respond to the Intolerable Acts
c. Ask for aid from the French
d. Establish a military

7. What document announced a state of war between the British American colonists and Great Britain?

a. The Articles of Confederation
b. The Declaration of Independence
c. The United States Constitution
d. The Declaration of Hostilities

8. Which of these was NOT considered part of Manifest Destiny?

a. American people and institutions are special
b. America had a mission to turn the west into an agrarian landscape
c. America’s destiny was to settle the west
d. All of the above are correct

9. What was the start of western expansion?

a. The Clermont steamboat
b. The Mexican American War
c. The invention of the telegraph
d. The discovery of gold in California

10. When did the Gold Rush start in California?

a. 1849
b. 1848
c. 1855
d. 1851

11. Which was the largest land acquisition for the United States?

a. The Louisiana Purchase
b. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
c. The Texas Annexation
d. The Gadsden Purchase

12. Which State was once a nation with its own president before being added to the Union during westward expansion?

a. Delaware
b. California
c. Alaska
d. Texas

13. What most shortened the time it took for people to get across the United States during westward expansion?

a. The telegraph
b. The Clearmont steamboat
c. The Transcontinental Railroad
d. The Northwest Passage

14. What marked the end of western expansion?

a. Arizona statehood
b. The end of the Mexican American War
c. The Completion Speech
d. The President William Mckinley’s Assassination

15. What was the Trail of Tears?

a. The last bloody battle/retreat of the Sioux Nation westward
b. The forced removal of Irish immigrants from New York
c. The relocation of many Native American tribes to “Indian Territory”
d. Part of the Transcontinental Railroad that claimed the most lives in its building


Answer Key

1. D
The Foreign Trade Act did not take place until after (centuries later) the American Revolutionary War, all the Intolerable Acts took place in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War.

Choice A is incorrect, the Stamp Act imposed a tax on the colonies by forcing them to use paper produced in Britain for many printed materials. This was the first of the Intolerable Acts or taxes that were placed on British American subjects without their consent.

Choice B is incorrect, the Townshed Acts were also part of the Intolerable Acts that were meant to raise revenue in the colonies for the employment of judges and governors. These were also used to punish colonists and force compliance with the numerous other taxes being levied against the colonies.

Choice C is incorrect, the Tea Act allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonies, thus making it cheaper. Many colonists hated this act because a small tax was added on without the consent of the colonists, the Boston Tea Party was the result.

2. B
Choice A is incorrect, even when the American Revolutionary War was occurring most of the colonists did not decisively want to be free from British rule, instead they either wanted to stay under British rule or they were undecided.

Choice B is correct, the British imposed taxes through the Intolerable Acts either without representatives from the colonies at all, or with representatives that effectively had no say in the matter.

Choice C is incorrect, while Colonists and people everywhere do not like to be taxed, taxes were what allowed government to function and the colonists made no statements against ALL taxes, just some of them.

Choice D is incorrect, A and B are incorrect

3. B
After the Seven Years War with France, Great Britain had a lot of debt and Parliament wanted the colonies to pay for some of the military expenditures and the cost of maintaining a military presence in the colonies.

Choice A is incorrect, the none of the Intolerable Acts were never used to raise revenue for the British Parliament salaries. The Intolerable Acts were used to pay off war debt, punish the colonies, and a variety of other things.

Choice C is incorrect, the Navigation Acts kept most trade in the British Colonies strictly between the colonies and Great Britain.

Choice D is incorrect, while the East India Company was fighting in India at this time the British military was not involved there yet.

4. A
The Second Continental Congress tried to avert war even though the battles of Lexington and Concord had already been fought. King James would not receive the petition because it came from what he perceived as an illegal and illegitimate assembly.

Choice C is false because while Thomas Jefferson wrote the first draft of the petition, most of it was redrafted, and it was never called Jefferson’s Plea.

Choice D is false because neither Samuel or John Adams thought the Plea would help and contributed nothing to the process. The plea was never called Adams Plea.

5. A
The First continental Congress met to discuss various ways of getting rid of the Intolerable Acts and petition the King of Great Britain for a redress of grievances.

Choice B is incorrect, this is the purpose of the Second Continental Congress.

Choice C is incorrect, the federal government was set up with the Articles of Confederation.

Choice D is incorrect, all the “states” at this point were not states yet, instead they were colonies that firmly belonged to Great Britain.

6. D
While many other things were achieved the main purpose of the Second Continental Congress was to establish a Continental Army.

Choice A is incorrect, the federal government was set up with the Articles of Confederation

Choice B is incorrect, Responding to the Intolerable Acts was the purpose of the First Continental Congress

Choice C is incorrect, asking for French aid was officially done after the Second Continental Congress was over, though Benjamin Franklin and others hinted at this possibility with many French officials.

7. B
With the Declaration of Independence the colonies disavowed the rule of Great Britain, effectively announcing a state of war between the colonists and Great Britain.

Choice A is incorrect, the Articles of Confederation Established a federal government and occurred after there was a state of war between Great Britain and the Colonies.

Choice C is incorrect, the United States Constitution was a document that strengthened the federal government and provided more effective ways of raising revenue.

Choice C is incorrect, while a declaration of hostilities does announce a state of war there was no such document called the Declaration of Hostilities.

8. D
All the reasons listed were part of Manifest Destiny,

Many Americans believed that they were special and could use the land better than anyone else.

The agrarian ideal was a very popular idea at the time, many dreamed that America should be populated by self-sufficient farmers. With all the “open” land in the west this seemed like a real possibility.

Many Americans believed that God had set America a destiny to bring civilization to the west, and that America would one day stretch across the continent.

9. A
The Clermont steamboat’s maiden voyage between New York and Albany took 32 hours, much less time than the four days it would take the average sloop. This showed that distances between areas were shrinking time-wise.

Choice B is incorrect, while the Mexican American War brought many people west it was not the start of western expansion.

Choice C is incorrect, the invention of the telegraph greatly helped communication across the country, but it was not invented until long after western expansion had started.

Choice D is incorrect, gold in California brought more people west faster than ever before, but western expansion had already started decades before.

10. B
Choice A is incorrect, while the miners were called 49ers after the year that most people started mining for gold in California this was not when the Gold Rush started.

Choice B is correct, this was the year that Gold was discovered in California and the Gold Rush commenced.

Choice C is incorrect, this was the year that the Gold Rush ended in California.

Choice D is incorrect, this was the year that California was admitted to the Union, not when the Gold Rush started.

11. A
The Louisiana Purchase was orchestrated under the Jefferson Administration and nearly doubled the size of the United States adding on almost 828,000 sq miles.

Choice B is incorrect, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo added 525,000 sq miles to the United States and Mexico lost nearly half of their land. This was still a smaller land acquisition than the Louisiana Purchase.

Choice C is incorrect, the Texas Annexation incorporated the Republic of Texas into the United States and brought in about 390,000 sq miles of land to the Union. This was also less than the Louisiana Purchase.

Choice D is incorrect, the Gadsden Purchase was the last time that the United States acquired land from Mexico with this $10 million purchase which added territory onto New Mexico and Arizona. This acquisition was for about 30,000 sqare miles which was less than the Louisiana Purchase.

12. D
Texas was an independent nation from about 1836 to 1845 with its own government and president. Mexico did not recognize this independence, but they effectively were independent until annexation by the United States in 1845.

Choice A is incorrect, Delaware was the first state in the Union in 1787, it was not created during westward expansion. Before being a state it was a colony of Great Britain, not a sovereign nation.

Choice B is incorrect, California claimed to be an independent nation for less than a year, but never installed a civil administration let alone a president.

Choice C is incorrect, Alaska was a territory of Russia before becoming part of the Union, and never was a sovereign nation.

13. C

The Transcontinental Railroad greatly reduced the amount of time it took to get across the United States from almost half a year to about a week.

Choice A is incorrect, the telegraph was the fastest way for information to travel across the Continental United States. People could not travel by telegraph however.

Choice B is incorrect, the Clearmont steamboat marked the start of westward expansion, but it did not provide the shortest trip across the United States.

Choice D is incorrect, the Northwest Passage is a sea route that runs through the Arctic Ocean from the tips of Russia and Alaska above Canada and out into the Atlantic Ocean. It was first discovered in 1903, but remained closed for most of each year until about 2010. This passage was dangerous and never was significantly used for the purposes of western expansion.

14. A
With Arizona’s statehood in 1912, all the west had been conquered and incorporated into the United States. There was nowhere else to expand in Western North America.

Choice B is incorrect, the end of the Mexican American War in 1848 was more than half a century before the end of western expansion.

Choice C is incorrect, the Completion Speech does not exist.

Choice D is incorrect, President William Mckinley’s Assassination in 1901 did not have an effect on westward expansion.

15. C
Many Native Americans were forcefully relocated out of the Deep South if they failed to assimilate. This occurred during much of the 1830s. Most deaths occurred near the end when the army detained many Native Americans who had not left and forced them west, many died due to disease, exposure and starvation.

Choice A is incorrect, the Trail of Tears occurred before the United States military and the various Sioux tribes were at war.

Choice B is incorrect, Irish immigrants were never forcefully removed en mass from New York

Choice D is incorrect, while the Transcontinental Railroad claimed many lives in its construction no part of it was ever called the Trail of Tears.

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World History Practice

WorldHistory-49156_16Subject Area Practice – World History

Subject area certifications (Social Science or Social studies) cover  Geography; U.S. History; Economics; World History; and Civics and Government.   For the world history section the following areas are generally covered :

  1. Prehistoric cultures and early civilizations (e.g., Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Indus Valley, Chinese).
  2. Influence of ancient civilizations (e.g., Greek, Roman, Indian, Chinese) on modern civilization.
  3. Contributions of African, Asian, and Meso-american societies before 1500.
  4. Contributions of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, and the Reformation period to Western civilization.
  5. Identify the social, cultural, political, and economic characteristics of African, Asian, and eastern European societies from 1500 to 1900.
  6. Evaluate the significant scientific, intellectual, and philosophical contributions of the Age of Reason through the Age of Enlightenment.
  7. Identify the causes, effects, events, and significant individuals associated with the Age of Exploration.
  8. Assess the social, political, and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution.
  9. Identify the causes, effects, events, and significant individuals associated with the Age of Revolution.
  10. Evaluate the impact of imperialism and nationalism on global social, political, geographic, and economic development.
  11. Analyze the causes and effects of political transformations and military conflicts in the 20th century.
  12. Analyze major contemporary global political, social, economic, and geographic issues and trends.
  13. Identify major world religions and ideologies.


Free World History Practice Questions

1. What is an early human civilization that smelted copper and alloyed it with tin?

a. The Tin Age
b. The Bronze Age
c. The Stone Age
d. The Iron Age

2. Which of these are NOT a trait of Classical Greece (4th and 5th centuries BCE)?

a. The Punic Wars
b. The Persian Wars
c. The Parthenon
d. The philosopher Socrates

3. What political practice, that still influences governments today, was started in Classical Greece?

a. Dictatorship
b. Communism
c. Capitalism
d. Democracy

4. What are Ares, Aphrodite, Demeter and Athena examples of?

a. Greek gods
b. Roman gods
c. Egyptian gods
d. Norse gods

5. Which of these did NOT contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire?

a. The spread of Christianity
b. Political instability
c. Invasion by Egyptian forces
d. Over reliance on slave labor

6. What is/are the Vedas in ancient Indian history?

a. A time period in which the region saw great economic, social and religious freedom.
b. The ruling class
c. A group of people who took over the original Harappan people of India.
d. Texts discussing the history and religion of Indian peoples and transmitted orally.

7. What was the first recorded Chinese dynasty?

a. Xia Dynasty
b. Han Dynasty
c. Tang Dynasty
d. Qing Dynasty

8. Which of these inventions were NOT invented by the Chinese?

a. Paper making
b. Chemical warfare
c. Gunpowder
d. Calculus

9. Which religion allows people to follow the Eightfold Path to Nirvana?

a. Buddhism
b. Hinduism
c. Islam
d. Taoism

10. What major religion emerged through the prophet Muhammad in Arabia in 7th century CE?

a. Christianity
b. Islam
c. Judaism
d. Zoroastrianism

11. Which of these factors was NOT important in the development of European Nation States?

a. Breaking of the Catholic Church from the state in England
b. Establishment of national languages
c. Napoleon Bonaparte in France
d. Centralization of European governments

12. Which of these was the main reason for mass migrations of people into Western Europe during the Dark Ages?

a. Violence in Eastern Europe that caused people to flee
b. Rapid increases in population that forced people to migrate
c. Economic and agricultural prosperity in Rome that encouraged others to move there
d. Refusal of Roman elite to support the military that would have stopped migration


Answer Key


1. B
Combining copper and tin creates bronze. Choice A is incorrect, there is no Tin Age.  Choice C is incorrect, The Stone Age came before The Bronze Age and is known for its use of stone, not metal.  Choice D is incorrect, The Iron Age came after The Bronze Age and is known for its use of iron.

2. A
The Punic Wars happened in Rome in the 3rd century BCE.

Choice B is incorrect, the Persian Wars happened in the 5th century BCE.  Choice C is incorrect, the Parthenon was constructed during the 5th century BCE. Choice D is incorrect, Socrates lived in Greece during the 5th century BCE.

3. D
Democracy was first introduced in Athens in the 6th century. Choice A is incorrect, dictatorships were first introduced in Rome in the 6th century. Choice B is incorrect, Communism was first introduced in Russia in the 19th century.

Choice C is incorrect, Capitalism was first introduced in Europe in the MIddle Ages.

4. A
Ares, Aphrodite, Demeter and Athena are the names of four ancient Greek gods. Choice B is incorrect, when Rome overtook Greece, they adopted some of their gods, but called them by different names. Choices C and are incorrect, Egyptian and Norse gods had different names.

5. C
Egypt attacking Rome at that time did not contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire. All the other choice were contributing factors. Choice A is incorrect, the spread of Christianity displaced Roman religion. Choice B is incorrect, Rome had grown very large and had become difficult to govern leading to civil war. Choice D is incorrect, as Rome stopped expanding they were no longer gaining slaves and were unable to support themselves.

6. D
Vedas are ancient texts composed in Vedic Sandskrit. Choice A is incorrect, this was not a time period in history. Choice B is incorrect, this was not the name of the ruling class. Choice C is incorrect, it is unknown what happened to the Harappan people and the next people who invaded were the Aryans.

7. A
There is some doubt as to whether the Xia Dynasty existed, but there is some recorded and archeological evidence that hints that it does.

Choice B is incorrect, the Han dynasty is was a golden age in Chinese history where Imperial China started, but it was not the first dynasty.

Choice C is incorrect, the Tang dynasty is another golden age of culture and society of Chinese history, Chang’an the capital of China was the largest city in the world at the time. Scholar officials ran the day-to-day operations of the empire, the only way to become a scholar official was to take examinations that were open to anyone.

Choice D is incorrect, the Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China, not the first.

8. D
Calculus was discovered by both Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz independently and not in any way invented by the Chinese. The other choices are all inventions by the Chines, paper making was invented by the Chinese around 200 BCE, the Chinese first utilized chemical warfare during about 400 BCE with the smoke of burnt mustard plants to kill their enemies, and the first use of gunpowder by the Chinese was before 1000 CE.

9. A
Buddhism maintains anyone can follow the Eightfold path to correct behavior and reach Nirvana. Choice B is incorrect, in Hinduism someone must go through a series of reincarnations before they can reach enlightenment.  Choice C is incorrect, Islam follows the teachings the Qur’an. Choice D is incorrect, Taoism is a Chinese philosophy of living.

10. B
Islam emerged in Arabia in 7th century CE. Choice A is incorrect, Christianity emerged in Rome in 1st century CE.

Choice C is incorrect, Judaism emerged in Israel in 6th century BCE.  Choice D is incorrect, Zoroastrianism emerged in Indo-Iran in 2nd century BCE.

11. B
There does not need to be a national language to form a Nation. Choice A is incorrect, breaking with the Catholic Church gave more power to the monarchy and increased nationalism in England. Choice C is incorrect, Napoleon was influential in unifying France and also caused other European nations to band together to fight against him.  Choice D is incorrect, the creation of central governments caused laws and policy to be uniform across nations.

12. D
Following the fall of the Roman Empire, the Roman army was no longer supported by tax. Choice A is incorrect, Eastern Europe did not experience violence during this time. Choice B is incorrect, there was not rapid increases in population causing people to migrate. Choice C is incorrect, the Roman Empire was not experiencing prosperity.


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